Hydraulic fracturing, also called fracing or hydrofracing, and sometimes fracking or hydrofracking, is an industrial use of water which involves injecting fluid, usually water, into rock under high pressure in order to increase the permeability of the formation. Sand or other propping agents are often added to prop up the opened fissures. Other chemicals, some confidential proprietary formulas, may also be added. One water use issue involved with fracking is contamination of underground and surface water supplies. Another is diversion of scarce water in arid regions to fracking.
The high pressures required to achieve fracturing of rock formations can result in failure of equipment and release of water at the well head. If a large volume is released it may escape from the containment structure provided and reach surface water.
Source of water for frackingEdit
Produced water is water found within the underground zone that is producing the oil or gas. It comes up with the oil or gas and must be disposed of, or used, in some way.
Propane has been used as the fluid for fracking.
- Simple video and audio explanation
- Video of gas well fracing site in Pennsylvania
- North Dakota frac job
- "Our Drinking Water at Risk: What EPA and the Oil And Gas Industry Don’t Want Us to Know About Hydraulic Fracturing" Lisa Sumi, Research Director of the Oil and Gas Accountability Project (OGAP), April 7, 2005.
- "Oil & Gas Water Use in Texas: Update to the 2011 Mining Water Use Report" September 2012 Prepared for Texas Oil & Gas Association, Austin, Texas Bureau of Economic Geology Scott W. Tinker, Director Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin