The Shatt al Arab is the outlet of the Euphrates and Tigris to the Persian Gulf. Diversion of water in the upper basin, particularly in Turkey, but also in Syria and Iran have reduced the flow in the Shatt al Arab and has permitted the influx of salt water. This upper basin development occurred while Iraq was weakened due to war and internal strife.[1]


  1. "Vital River Is Withering, and Iraq Has No Answer" article by Steven Lee Myers in The New York Times June 12, 2010

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